The doctrine of the triune God was born during the third and fourth centuries. There is no such doctrine found in the Bible, but it is a doctrine developed by the fathers of the Catholic Church, based on the Greek philosophy, and which has a model in old pagan religions. The Catholic Church has so firmly supported the doctrine that believers are forced to acknowledge the doctrine determined by the Church under the threat of their own lives. Luther did not address this crucial question even in the 16th century, even though many doctrines of the Catholic Church were discontinued.
Trinitarianism is thus a doctrine acknowledged by Catholic synods. In these scriptures, I study how biblical this doctrine is. Does the Bible speak about the Trinity in the Old Testament or the New Testament? What do the prophets say God has declared of Himself? What do the apostles write and testify of Jesus to say about God? Did Jesus claim to be God or being a part of a triune God? Since I am a supporter of the principle of sola scriptura, I want these central doctrinal principles to be found in the Bible. Instead, for the Catholics, the Bible is not the first, not to speak of single source of divine truth; the few synod assemblies to be discussed, as an example of many, go beyond biblical truth.
Here is a brief overview of the formation of the doctrine of the Trinity in Catholic synods.
The first person who used the concept of the trinity was Tertullian in the 200’s.
In AD 325, a synod in Nice was held in the current territory of Turkey. This was historically the first attempt to reach consensus in all churches in Christendom. Emperor Constantine the Great summoned the assembly to condemn the doctrine of the Arians. The Ariolaians recognized the divinity of Jesus but explained to him to be the creation of God the Father. In fact, Areios himself was condemned to be heretic. At the meeting, the current trinity doctrine was formulated as follows “God is triune and consists of three independent persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Three persons – one God.
At the Constantinople synod in AD 381, the Holy Spirit was specifically addressed. The Constantinople doctrine of the Trinity was specified in such a way that in the Godhead there are three persons who are of one and the same entity, one for perfection, one God.
The third ecclesiastical synod was held in Ephesos, in the present Turkish territory in AD 431. The purpose of the meeting was to deal with the controversy caused by the Nestorians about the nature of Christ. Archbishop Nestorius from Constantinople claimed that Christ had two personalities, divine and human. The Catholic Church held onto the position of the Nice synod according to which Christ and God the Father were of the same essence, and the Ephesus synod condemned this doctrine to be heretic. The assembly confirmed that Christ has two natures, God and man, but in one person.
The Virgin Mary is said to be the Mother of God. People are allowed to turn to Mary in prayer, meaning that she acts as a mediator between men and God and she has been earnestly honored to this day in the Catholic Church. The participants of the Church Assembly apparently did not remember the Bible verse, which states that ”For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus (1 Tim 2: 5) There is another equally valid biblical reasoning why this can not be. More specifically, I refer to the article about resurrection.
According to Alexandrian bishop Athanasios (295-373), a creed has been drawn up according to which, Catholic and Protestant churches recognize their doctrines. The creed had probably been drawn up at the turn of the 400s and 500s in the region of southern France. The creed was directed against the Areion doctrine, in which the teaching of the Church about the Trinity of God and the dual nature -doctrine of Christ were questioned.
The Athanasian Creed states:
”So likewise the Father is Almighty; the Son Almighty; and the Holy Ghost Almighty. And yet they are not three Almighties, but one Almighty. So the Father is God; the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God. And yet they are not three Gods; but one God. So likewise the Father is Lord; the Son Lord; and the Holy Ghost Lord. And yet not three Lords; but one Lord”.
Here is the core of confession. Finally, it is said to the Christians: This is the catholic faith; which except a man believe truly and firmly, he cannot be saved.
If that were the case, all three god persons would be equally almighty, but the Bible gives a different view. Jesus Christ Himself proves that the Father is greater than he is. The Holy Ghost, on the other hand, can be sent by the Father and Son. Likewise, Jesus says that he is doing just as the Father commands him. The Bible testifies that Jesus has all power in heaven as well as on earth – this could easily ascertain that Jesus is God. But: Jesus says: I have been given all the power … How could someone who is almighty be given something that he has had all the time?
The trinity element, i.e. the full omnipotence of all three persons, does not materialize. If Christ is God, he cannot be the Almighty. According to their own words, the Father is greater than Jesus. Here is the hierarchy of the Trinity, but it does mean watering down the principle of Athanasius’s confession of faith. In fact, I do not believe in the Trinity, even though there are more than two billion people in the world who belong to churches of this principle, such as the Catholic Church and others like the Evangelical Lutheran church. I am, of course, willing to change my mind if someone shows where in the Bible it talks about the Triune God, and why in the Old Testament, God the Father says he is the one and only God, and why Jesus Christ and the apostles testified that they have only one God, the Father, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, and why Jesus himself did not say he was God or part of it, but said that he was the Son and the Father is greater than He, and that He just did what the Father commanded Him to do. The Trinity is the most important doctrine of Christian churches. This was confirmed by the Catholic Church’s synods. Should such a central doctrine not come from the Bible – the very Word of God?
The doctrine of Trinity is justified by some Bible verses such as 1 Jhn 5:7-8 For there are three who testify: the Spirit and the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement.” – This verse has been translated ”these three are one. [Only a few recent manuscripts add “in heaven: the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one. And there are three that testify on earth”]:
In fact, the whole sentence is only found in four Greek scripts, when there are about 5,000 copies where it is not included. The phrase began to appear in Latin scripts in the 4th century. From the Latin scripts, it was copied in the 16th-century Greek manuscripts. Erasmus Rotterdam, the most prominent Bible scholar of his time, did not accept this text as the original text.
A similar situation is found in verse Mat 28:19: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit”. The third-century apologist Eusebius wrote, “Go and teach all nations and baptize them in my name.” From the Bible we can read that the apostles did just that; they baptized the new followers in the name of Jesus also.
Relationship between the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost
The Bible is the most misunderstood book in the world
In spite of the fact that the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit all agree, the Christians are divided into thousands and thousands of denominations. There are no longer religious wars between Christians like there were five hundred years ago. The ecumenical movement seems to gain new victories under the leadership of the Catholic Church and the Pope. The Bible, however, no longer constitutes the foundation of faith; people do not agree with the central message of the Bible, and its interpretations are countless.
How to correctly understand the Bible? I have considered the following question as an example of one of the most important biblical doctrines – the Trinity. I point out misconceptions of God the Father, the Son of God and the Holy Spirit.
A. Where is the proof of the Triune God?
The doctrine of Trinity raises a lively discussion in the Bible circles. In one of the discussions, a person advocating trinity wanted to prove the doctrine by means of Bible verses. Let us first go through the Bible verses which, in his opinion, undoubtedly testify of God being triune:
(My comments after each verse)
Mat 28:19 ”Therefore, as you go, disciple all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit”, – This is a rare verse in the Bible, because in the same verse there are mentioned all three, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. However, this is a fake, unauthorized addition. See the article “Baptism in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost”.
2 Cor 13:14 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. Amen. – A beautiful wish, but does not in any way prove God is triune.
1 Pet 1:2 according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit to obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace and peace be multiplied to you. – A beautiful wish.
Mat 3:16 And having been baptized, Jesus went up immediately from the water. And, behold! The heavens were opened to Him, and He saw the Spirit of God coming down as a dove, and coming upon Him. 17 Then a voice from heaven said, “This is my Son, whom I love. I am pleased with him!” – This was the beginning of Jesus’ public activity, in connection which God recognized Jesus as his son.
1 Cor 12:4 And there are differences of gifts, but the same Spirit; 5 and there are differences of ministries, yet the same Lord. – Paul tells about the gifts of the spirit in the church.
1 Tim 3:16 And confessedly, great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifested in flesh, was justified in Spirit, was seen by angels, was proclaimed among nations, was believed on in the world, was taken up in glory. – With a couple of sentences explaining the ministry of Jesus on earth.
Eph 1:3 Blessed is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heaven lies with Christ, 4 according as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, for us to be holy and without blemish before Him in love,
Eph 4:5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism,
4:6 one God and Father of all, He above all and through all and in you all. – The verse praises God and the Father of Christ. We believe in one God who is our Lord. One God and Father, who is overall. This is how I believe. I think these verses testify of one God and not of God’s trinity.
Rom 8:11 And if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, then the one who raised Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive by his Spirit who lives in you. – If the Spirit of God dwells in us, God, who raised Christ from the dead, will also make our mortal bodies alive. That’s what I believe. Amen.
Joh 5:23 so that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. The one not honoring the Son does not honor the Father who has sent Him. – This is not related to the doctrine of Trinity in any way; the verse only proves that the Father is greater than the Son which is against the original doctrine of the Trinity; at the time of Athanasius, the theory of Trinity was understood so that all three, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit were equal.
1 Joh 5:20 We also know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding so that we may know the true God. We are in union with the one who is true, his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life.
True: true, ἀληθινός alēthinos, opposite to what is fictitious, counterfeit, imaginary, simulated or pretended. Who is this true God? Many are confident that “he” is exactly Christ. But John 17:3 says, “But this is eternal life, that they know you who alone is true God, and the one whom you have sent, Jesus Christ.” – These verses were meant to prove that God is Triune. If you read this verse carefully, you will find that God the Father is the only true God. To achieve eternal life, according to the verse, you also have to know the one whom God has sent, Jesus Christ. These people do not know; about two billion people believe in God being Triune. A clearer translation of 1 John 5:20 would be the following: We know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding so that we may know the true God. We are in union with the one who is true, his Son Jesus Christ. God the Father is the true God and eternal life.
Joh 14:16 I will ask the Father to give you another Helper, to be with you always. Joh 14:17 He is the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, for it neither sees him nor recognizes him. But you recognize him, for he abides with you and will be in you. – The Holy Spirit is called here as the Spirit of truth. Jesus promises to pray to the Father, that the Father would give another Counsellor to the apostles, that is, the Spirit of truth. It is also evident from this that the Father is above Jesus, i.e. they are not equal.
You have now read these Bible verses, which one of the true believers of the triune God has chosen to prove that God is triune. In fact, I did not find such a proof. How did you do? I’m not trying to convert you, my reader, just to remind you of the importance of the love for truth. It can take years – just as with me – before the pieces fit together. It’s a cheerful feeling. Still, there are many questions I do not know the answer yet. I’m searching for it and God will give me the answer in time.
B. Jesus Christ, the Son of God, a man – Can a man be God?
God of Jesus, father, (Eph 1:17 ”the God of our Lord Jesus Christ”), raised Jesus from the dead and exalted Jesus by placing him on his right hand side in heaven: Eph 1:20 which he put to work in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realm.
Of these verses of the Ephesians, we can conclude:
- Jesus has God who is above him, the Father. God the Father raised Jesus from the dead. If Jesus were God, he could have woken himself up in the human body.
- Second, we are let to know that when Jesus had ascended into heaven, God raised him by placing Christ’s throne on his right side. This means that Jesus is in power second immediately after God.
- Further, we can conclude from the elevation of Jesus that he was not as highly esteemed before his elevation. The raising of Jesus is presented in a short account. However, the importance of this sentence is of absolute importance! Stop and think about what it means. Many people do not understand the influence of the phrase in the doctrine of the trinity and the deity of Jesus. If God raised Jesus, it means that Jesus was not the Almighty God in the past like the Father. God cannot be raised because God already is the absolute highest authority. And when Jesus was raised, it means he was not God. Such a small phrase can be of immeasurable importance when you realize what it means. Well, now you are saying, “Yes, but Jesus was a man on earth, of course, he had to be raised when he came to heaven …” The counter-argument: when Jesus entered heaven (where he now supposedly was before his birth on earth), he would automatically assume his position as God in the Triune divinity. There was no need for God the Father to raise him.
The end result from this reflection is that Jesus was not the Almighty God in heaven before his ascension to heaven. I wonder if he even was in heaven before? In fact, Jesus’ position was comparable to angels; Heb 1:4 says that Jesus became much higher than angels: “and became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is better than theirs.” – Jesus was not God, but after his raise, his new position is compared to angels; his new position on the right side of God is now above all angels. It is known of the highest angels that they have access to God’s throne – but not to sit on the right-hand side of God. God gave this position to his only Son, who is a human.
What else do we know about the new, higher status of our Lord Jesus Christ?
We know that Christ will come back to earth when the first resurrection takes place. He establishes the Millennial kingdom, which lasts for a thousand years on earth. He is going to be the supreme king and will rule together with the apostles and the saints of the resurrection.
We also know from the Bible that, after a thousand years, there will be another resurrection and the Last Judgment.
We know that after this, Christ hands off the power back to the Father. This is by no means an impairment for Christ, but his position will then be emphasized as the High priest.
John recognized Jesus as God! – Really?
Those who regard Jesus as God claim that apostle John acknowledged Jesus his God. The proof is the Bible verse where Thomas calls Jesus his God? Can Jesus be God if he did not have immortality from the beginning?
Thomas said to Jesus after seeing the signs of crucifixion in Jesus (John 20:28): “My Lord and my God“. The Trinitarians believe that Thomas meant Jesus when he said “my God”. Only three verses later John emphasizes: John 20:31 But these have been written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name.
From the aforementioned, it is clear that John 20:28 did not intend to prove Jesus to be God, but only that “you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God.” It can be misleading if you remove one single verse without looking at the wholeness.
God has always had eternal life, immortality. This is inseparable from God’s property. John 5:26 “For just as the Father has life in himself, so also he has granted the Son to have life in himself.” – Life means eternal life, immortality. Jesus did not have eternal life before God gave it to him. Christ received immortality from the Father, but did it make him God?
I have written about God, faith in the Trinitarian doctrine and divinity of Jesus, in more detail in Chapter 3. I took this example to show how difficult it is to achieve consensus on Biblical issues. 1 Cor 8:6, which says, ” yet for us there is only one God, the Father… and one Lord Jesus Christ …” This verse of Corinthians is, in my opinion, unambiguously clear; we have only one God who is the Father. Even such clear proof does not convince people, but from the Catholic synods, the pagan teachings have displaced the Bible. Joh 12:40 “He [Satan] has blinded their eyes …” Satan is well suited to the fact that billions of people do not know the truth. Indeed, people do not even know that Satan is the god of this world.
The confusion of interpreting the Bible’s word could be avoided if people really looked for the truth. Truth can be found by searching. But the truth does not seem to interest. For people, it is sufficient that they visit the church from time to time and the priest promises them access to heaven. Many are on the right track, but stop searching after finding the doctrine they like. Many would like to say to me that God is one but still hold the doctrine of the Trinity. I, foolish that I am, just do not understand this. To them, I would answer: show me the proof in the Bible. One person tried but failed miserably. One cannot claim that all three would be equal in divinity and power. I could accept the idea of God’s trinity if it means that the three are one in agreement.
Jesus Christ – a man
Luke tells about the childhood of Jesus: 2:25 Now a man named Simeon was in Jerusalem. This man was righteous and devout. He was waiting for the one who would comfort Israel, and the Holy Spirit rested on him. 26 It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die until he had seen the Lord’s Christ. – Simeon came to the synagogue, led by the Spirit at the same time as the parents of Jesus brought the child to the sanctuary. Simeon took Jesus in his arms and said, praising God, 2:29 “Master, now you are allowing your servant to leave in peace according to your word. 2:30 For my eyes have seen your salvation”.
Luke continues 2:40 And the Child grew, and became strong in spirit, being filled with wisdom. And the grace of God was upon Him. – At the age of twelve Jesus’ family traveled to the annual Feast of the Passover. Jesus left out of the returning caravan and stayed in Jerusalem. Concerned parents found Jesus three days later. 46 …in the temple sitting among the teachers, listening to them, and asking them questions. 49 He [Jesus] said to them, “Why were you looking for me? Didn’t you know that I had to be in my Father’s house?” – Joseph and Mary did not understand what Jesus meant. This seems strange; did not the father and mother of Jesus remember angel Gabriel’s revelation, the visit of wise men, the Egyptian journey and all that God had communicated to them about Jesus’ forthcoming mission?
There is no further knowledge of the years of Jesus’ youth. However, we can believe that God’s wisdom grew and the relationship with God strengthened. At the age of thirty, Jesus had matured and John baptized him and God acknowledged Jesus as his son.
God’s spirit made Mary pregnant, and Jesus was born, as a normal human being, to be a normal man, except that he had extraordinary human genes. At a very young age, he knew the Bible better than the learned old. God gave Jesus his own attributes so that they were spiritually one. In Jesus dwelled all the fullness of God. Jesus used God’s power and qualities to heal people and even to raise a few from dead. Jesus was, however, a man to whom God had given his own abilities, and Jesus acted only according to God’s will. Mat 12:28 But if I drive out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come to you.
Joh 5:19 Then Jesus answered and said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son is not able to do anything from Himself, except what He may see the Father doing; for whatever that One does, these things also the Son does the same way.
Joh 14:10 You believe, don’t you, that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own. It is the Father who dwells in me who does his works. 11 Believe me, I am in the Father and the Father is in me. Otherwise, believe me because of the works themselves. – All that Jesus did was in accordance with God’s will and using the power of God.
Jesus had to be completely human. Hebrews 2:17 Thus he had to become like his brothers in every way, so that he could be a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God and could atone for the people’s sins. 18 Because he himself suffered when he was tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted. – If Jesus had been God, he could not have atoned human sins. When Jesus was a man, he was worthy of becoming the High priest in the presence of God (Father). Jesus acts as the King of the Millennial kingdom with the Apostles and saints during the thousand years. After that, he hands over the leadership of the kingdom back to God. After the last judgment, Jesus Christ is the High priest according to Melchizedek.
1 Cor 15:21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man.
Rom 5:15 But God’s free gift is not like Adam’s offense. For if many people died as the result of one man’s offense, how much more have God’s grace and the free gift given through the kindness of one man, Jesus Christ, been showered on many people!
When Adam was the first person to fall into sin, Jesus was the last man to repair Adam’s sin and offer salvation through faith to man, not through law compliance. All heavenly beings are spirits. When God sent Jesus to atone mankind from sin, he needed Jesus to be a human. The birth of Jesus and Mary’s becoming virginally conceived, is comparable to the biblical account of Abraham’s wife Sarah, who became pregnant at the old age of ninety years (Gen 21:2). God sent Jesus to carry out the redemption mission of mankind. It happened when Jesus became a full-grown man and Jesus received baptism from John and God acknowledged Jesus as his beloved son. When John the Baptist baptized Jesus, the Holy Ghost descended in the form of a dove on Jesus. Jesus was thus ready to begin his public activity. According to the Jewish view, a man was, in this sense, an adult of about thirty years of age. The public activity of Jesus was only a few years length and he was crucified at about 33 years of age.
The spirit of God dwelled in Jesus. In his epistle to the Romans, Apostle Paul underlines the importance of the Spirit: Romans 8:9 But you are not in flesh, but in Spirit, since the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone has not the Spirit of Christ, this one is not His. – If the Spirit of God dwells in you … But who has not the Spirit of Christ … Which spirit are we talking, God’s or Christ’s? Verse 11 clarifies the situation: 8:11 But if the Spirit of the One having raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, the One having raised the Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies live through the indwelling of His Spirit in you. – It is God’s spirit that raised the dead Christ. This spirit dwelling in you will also give life your mortal bodies.
1 Joh 4:13 This is how we know that we abide in him and he in us: he has given us his Spirit.
1 Joh 4:15 Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God. – In this verse, John emphasizes, that we must confess Jesus as God’s son. If we do so, God (meaning the God the Father) remains in us. John was Jesus’ favorite disciple. I am sure that the apostles would have made it clear if Jesus was God like the Father.
1 John 4:2 From this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit who recognizes Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God; – Jesus came into the world as a human being, “in the flesh,” and lived the life of a man, and died as a man, and resurrected as a man, the kind of a man people in the future resurrect. Jesus was in the resurrection body both in spirit and in flesh; When he was a spirit, he was able to appear anywhere, even though the locked doors. At least once he wanted to be in the flesh when Thomas wanted to test the traces of nails in his hands. Jesus was otherwise completely human with the difference that God’s fullness (God’s spirit) lived in him and taught him the will of God from the very beginning of the little boy. With the power of God and the will of God, Jesus made the miracles and even raised three people from the dead.
4:16 We have come to know and believe in the love that God has for us. God is love, and the person who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him.
Jesus lived as a human being, died as a human being and rose from the dead as a human being
Jesus lived a sinless life fully as a human being. Therefore, he was worthy to justify all mankind. Rom 5:18 says: Consequently, just as one offense resulted in condemnation for everyone, so one act of righteousness results in justification and life for everyone. Rom 1:4 who was marked out Son of God in power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by resurrection of the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord; 1 Cor 15:20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead; He became the first fruit of those having fallen asleep.21 For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man. 22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ will all be made alive. 23 However, this will happen to each person in the proper order: first Christ, then those who belong to Christ when he comes.
When Luke told of Jesus as a young boy, it is easy to think of Jesus as a human being. As you read the verses above, many consider resurrected Son of God to be God and not just the Son of God. When these thoughts come to mind, it is important to remember what John said: 17:3 And this is everlasting life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom You have sent. – Father is the only true God. Jesus is the one whom God has sent. I took an example of the words of John, because the very words of John have been misinterpreted.
About the miracles Jesus and his apostles performed
Mat 12:28 But if I [Jesus] cast out the demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come on you.
If Jesus had been God, he could have done all these miracles of his own strengths. However, he was completely human and for this reason, God made through Jesus all the works told in the Scriptures.
Joh 5:19 Then Jesus answered and said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son is not able to do anything from Himself, except what He may see the Father doing; for whatever that One does, these things also the Son does the same way.
I can do nothing on my own accord
Joh 5:30 I can do nothing on my own accord. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I do not seek my own will but the will of the one who sent me.”
Joh 14:10 Do you not believe that I [Jesus] am in the Father and the Father is in Me? The words which I speak to you I do not speak from Myself, but the Father who abides in Me, He does the works.
Joh 14:11 Believe me, I am in the Father and the Father is in me. Otherwise, believe me because of the works themselves.
The apostles did miracles in the same way as Jesus – with the help of God’s Holy Spirit. This was only possible after Jesus had been glorified and gone to the Father in Heaven. Joh 7:39 But He said this concerning the Spirit, whom the ones believing into Him were about to receive; for the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified. Act 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.”
Act 5:12 And many miracles and wonders among the people took place through the hands of the apostles. And they were all with one passion in Solomon’s Porch.
Act 14:3 They stayed there a considerable time and continued to speak boldly for the Lord, who kept affirming his word of grace and granting signs and wonders to be done by them.
19:11 God continued to do extraordinary miracles by Paul’s hands.
C. Holy Spirit – Does the Holy Spirit Work Independently?
God speaks through the Holy Spirit, through the prophets, and also by his son Jesus (also called a prophet in the Bible). Act 1:2 up to the day when he was taken up to heaven after giving orders by the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen. 4:25 You said by the Holy Spirit through the voice of our ancestors, your servant David, ‘Why do the Gentiles rage, and the people devise useless plots?
Can the Holy Spirit work independently or only on the assignment of God and Christ? I try to find out this question through the following Bible verses. In order for the Holy Spirit to be an independent person in the triune Godhead, the Holy Spirit should be able to act independently and not just to carry out the duties given by the Father and the Son. The same goes for the Son, Jesus Christ, of course.
Mat 10:19 When they hand you over, don’t worry about how you are to speak or what you are to say, for in that hour what you are to say will be given to you. 20 For it won’t be you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you.
Mat 11:27 All things have been entrusted to me [Jesus] by my Father. No one fully knows the Son except the Father, and no one fully knows the Father except the Son and the person to whom the Son chooses to reveal him. – Christ says that He knows the Father fully unlike the others. Yet it is said about the Holy Spirit, “But God revealed them to us by His Spirit, for the Spirit searches all things, even the depths of God.” (1 Cor. 2:10). When the Father and the Son agree in one, they are in a close relationship, or as the Bible says, all the fullness of God lives in the Son.
Apt 13:2 And while they were doing service to the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, So then separate both Barnabas and Saul to Me, for the work to which I have called them. 13:4 Being sent out by the Holy Spirit, … 13:9 But Saul, also known as Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, looked him straight in the eye…
1 Cor 12:11 But one and the same Spirit produces all these results and gives what he wants to each person. Compare: Rom 12:3 …rather to think of yourself with sober judgment on the measure of faith that God has assigned each of you. – Rom. testifies that God determines how much faith is given to each one. The verse in the Corinthians above would seem to say that the Holy Spirit divides each faith as the Spirit wishes. Perhaps this is also because the Holy Spirit is God’s spirit, so it is God who gives the Holy Spirit the assignments that this carries out. This is apparent from the following verse: John 16:13 Yet when the Spirit of Truth comes, he will guide you into all truth. For he will not speak on his own accord, but will speak whatever he hears and will declare to you the things that are to come. And also Heb 2:4 while God added his testimony through signs, wonders, various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.
Trinitarians have had a strong ambition to find evidence in favor of the Trinity in the Bible. They have not been able to find proper evidence in the Bible so they must have produced verses themselves. Matthew 28:19 Baptism in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit is an unauthorized addition and perhaps the clearest example. I have written an article about this case.
The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God. The second verse in the Bible is evidence of it. Gen 1:2 and the earth being without form and empty, and darkness on the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moving gently on the face of the waters,