Is God Three-in-One or Two-in-One or Just One?


  • The Triune God
  • Athanasius Creed
  • What is the rank of the persons in the Triune God?
  • Counterfeits and additions to prove the Trinity
  • God Two-in-one, for and against
  • the Holy Spirit of God
  • God’s choosing before the foundation of the world
  • God’s plan
  • One God, the Father
  • God’s Word, Wisdom and Power
  • One Almighty God, the Father
  • Who is ”the god of this world?”


The Triune God

Nicea’s Creed, which was primarily written in 325 AD, was a revision of the Creed written earlier that year by Eusebius of Caesarea, a historian and a believer close to Emperor Constantine. Subsequent changes mainly reflected the additions of The First Council of Constantinople.

The Nicene Creed 1975 ecumenical version says:

We believe in one God,
the Father, the Almighty,
maker of heaven and earth,
of all that is, seen and unseen.

We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ,
the only Son of God,
eternally begotten of the Father,
[God from God], Light from Light,
true God from true God,
begotten, not made,
of one Being with the Father.
Through him all things were made.
For us and for our salvation
he came down from heaven:
by the power of the Holy Spirit
he became incarnate from the Virgin Mary,
and was made man.
For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate;
he suffered death and was buried.
On the third day he rose again
in accordance with the Scriptures;
he ascended into heaven
and is seated at the right hand of the Father.
He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead,
and his kingdom will have no end.

We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life,
who proceeds from the Father [and the Son].
With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified.
He has spoken through the Prophets.
We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church.
We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins.
We look for the resurrection of the dead,
and the life of the world to come. Amen.

Brackets include the Filioque inscription used in Western churches, which is not part of the original Nicaean-Constantinople creed. The addition of Filioque means “and the Son,” which Western churches call for. There are many versions. I quickly calculated over 20 versions online.

When the Father and the Son were spoken of as Gods, it was stated of the Holy Spirit that “We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father [and the Son]. With the Father and the Son, he is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets.”

The confirmation of the divinity of the Holy Spirit was delayed; In 381 The First Council of Constantinople confirmed the Holy Spirit as the third person of the godhead. It took three centuries to form the doctrine of the triune God! If the doctrine were based on the Bible, it would have been found much faster.

After Nicaea, Arius and Athanasius went on to fight for the design of their creeds, which one would win. Many different wordings were available. The creed of Athanasius bearing his name overcame. Its text, written in the 4th century, says, among other things:


Athanasius Creed

Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the catholic faith. Which faith unless every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly. And the catholic faith is this: that we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing the Essence. For there is one Person of the Father; another of the Son; and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one; the Glory equal, the Majesty coeternal. Such as the Father is; such is the Son; and such is the Holy Ghost. The Father uncreated; the Son uncreated; and the Holy Ghost uncreated. The Father unlimited; the Son unlimited; and the Holy Ghost unlimited. The Father eternal; the Son eternal; and the Holy Ghost eternal. And yet they are not three eternals; but one eternal. As also there are not three uncreated; nor three infinites, but one uncreated; and one infinite. So likewise the Father is Almighty; the Son Almighty; and the Holy Ghost Almighty. And yet they are not three Almighties; but one Almighty. So the Father is God; the Son is God; and the Holy Ghost is God. And yet they are not three Gods; but one God. So likewise the Father is Lord; the Son Lord; and the Holy Ghost Lord. And yet not three Lords; but one Lord. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity; to acknowledge every Person by himself to be God and Lord; So are we forbidden by the catholic religion; to say, There are three Gods, or three Lords. The Father is made of none; neither created, nor begotten. The Son is of the Father alone; not made, nor created; but begotten. The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son; neither made, nor created, nor begotten; but proceeding. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts. And in this Trinity none is before, or after another; none is greater, or less than another. But the whole three Persons are coeternal, and coequal. So that in all things, as aforesaid; the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, is to be worshipped. He therefore that will be saved, let him thus think of the Trinity.

Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation; that he also believe faithfully the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. For the right Faith is, that we believe and confess; that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of    God, is God and Man; God, of the Substance [Essence] of the Father; begotten before the worlds; and Man, of the Substance [Essence] of his Mother, born in the world. Perfect God; and perfect Man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting. Equal to the Father, as touching his Godhead; and inferior to the Father as touching his Manhood. Who although he is God and Man; yet he is not two, but one Christ. One; not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh; but by assumption of the Manhood into God. One altogether; not by confusion of Substance [Essence]; but by unity of Person. For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man; so God and Man is one Christ; Who suffered for our salvation; descended into hell; rose again the third day from the dead. He ascended into heaven, he sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty, from whence he will come to judge the living and the dead. At whose coming all men will rise again with their bodies; And shall give account for their own works. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting; and they that have done evil, into everlasting fire. This is the catholic faith; which except a man believe truly and firmly, he cannot be saved.


By the Middle Ages, both Catholics and Protestants were very much in agreement with the doctrine of the Triune God. For many centuries in the history of the Trinity, the words blood, murder, intolerance, and condemnation of dissidents have been described. The doctrine was rooted in people, so that believing it was utterly blind loyalty and total conviction. Those Christians who misbelieved got their faith paid by dying. Even today, it is difficult to find a Christian church that does not believe in a triune God. These are at least Jehovah’s Witnesses (believing God to be one, the Father) and The Restored Church of God (considering that God is made up of two Gods, the Father and the Son), but their number is like a drop in the mainstream of billions of Christians.

There have been various attempts to describe God’s three manifestations. The most “genius” of these is: God is like water, the other two being ice and steam. Yet they are the same substance.

The Bible says wisely: 1 Cor 14:33, “For God is not a God of confusion but of peace. As in all the churches of the saints.” God’s wish has not come true. There are dozens, if not hundreds of translations of the Bible. Every denomination and cult seem to be forced to have its translation of the Bible. There are many versions of Biblical interpretations. There appears to be a consensus on God’s Trinity because the two largest denominations, Catholics and Protestants, believe so. That’s what you might think! As we go into more detail, the differences become apparent. The differences have led to wars; for example, the so-called 30-year war between the Catholics and the Protestants in the 17th century. Both denominations have, of course, persecuted their believers.

God’s wish has not come true. There are dozens, if not hundreds of translations of the Bible. Every denomination and sect seems to have its own translation of the Bible. There are innumerable versions of Biblical doctrines. There appears to be a consensus on God’s Trinity because the two largest denominations, Catholics and Protestants, believe so. When we go into details, the differences come to light. The differences have led to wars, for instance, the so-called 30–year war between the Catholics and the Protestants in the 17th century. Both have, of course, separately persecuted believers in their respective circles.

The following observation is essential: The doctrine of the Triune God required 300 to 400 years to develop, why didn’t Christ make it clear and teach his Apostles God to be triune?

Why did God not mention anything about the three persons of the Godhead? So bright and simple straightforward that everyone would understand it. Or the deity of Jesus. I think the reason is this: God believes that those spiritually born-again are able to solve doctrinal questions well enough. Although this is not said in the Bible, the cause of the doctrinal dispersion is Satan, who could be called the creator of confusion. Confusion and doctrinal disputes will separate humanity from God. There is a great struggle going on for human souls. This battle, invisible to many, has been fought since God gave Satan the kingship of this world. The exact time of this, I can’t say with certainty, but it may have happened shortly after God expelled Adam and Eve from paradise. God gave the earthly rulership of that time to some world power, beginning with Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, followed by Medo–Persia, then Greece and Rome. God gave Satan the kingship of the spirit world, and Jesus confirmed it in his day.

In the Bible, The Trinitarians focus only on a few passages and then take them entirely out of context and claim they mean something they do not mean.

The doctrine of the Triune God is said to be so tricky and incomprehensible that one has only to accept this mystery of faith. I try to understand and justify my perceptions with ordinary common sense. For example: Trinitarians believe that Jesus Christ is part of the Godhead of three, meaning he has always existed in heaven with God the Father and the Holy Spirit. Jesus is equal with the other two God Persons. Is that the case? The Trinitarians believe that Jesus was sent from heaven to earth and that Jesus was born as a human being, and he emptied himself and did not regard equality with God: I ask: Why did God exalt Jesus as Lord and Christ when he came back to heaven? Why didn’t he welcome Jesus in his former position as one in the God Almighty? The Lord and Christ signify a diminution of value compared to his previous post as one of the Almighty.

Jesus is indeed said to have two natures, human and God. I understand that such a doctrine was invented when the contradiction caused by Jesus’ death was discovered. God cannot die. God has always existed and always will. God is eternal and immortal. However, when Jesus died, an explanation had to be found. As he entered into the world, his human nature died, but of course, God in him did not die. The problem was recognized, but it took hundreds of years before the solution was found.

The First Council of Nicaea was the first ecclesiastical assembly to try to solve the problem in 325. The meeting decided that the Father and the Son were of the same essence. The Son and the Father are equal, and they, both together and individually, are part of one Deity. The final formulation of doctrine was accomplished at the council of Chalcedon in 451. It took the Church more than 400 years after Jesus’ death to solve this knotty problem. This is just one example of the blindness described in the Bible in Matthew 15:14 “Leave them alone. They are blind guides of the blind. If the blind guide the blind, both will fall into a pit.”


What is the rank order of the persons of the triune God?

1 Cor 11:3 But I want you to realize that Christ is the head of every man, and man is the head of the woman, and God is the head of Christ.  15:28 When all things have been subjected to him, then the Son will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things to him, that God may be all in all.

Paul writes that he wants readers to know that God is the head of Christ, that is, above him. Jesus himself testified that God is greater than him. The verse 15:28 is indirectly referring to the coming Millennial kingdom of Christ. After his Second Coming, Christ will reign on earth as king of this kingdom, together with the saints of the first resurrection.

God has exalted His Son to be Lord and Christ and given him eternal life. Although Christ sits on the throne to the right of God and is given the same power as God himself has in heaven and on earth. However, he is always subordinated to God. We know from the rest of the book of Revelation that the future position of Christ is God’s High Priest.

Jesus testifies that God the Father has sent him to earth. The word Jesus spoke was not his own, but what his Father had commanded him to speak.

Joh 14:24 The one who does not love me does not keep my words. The word that you hear is not mine, but comes from the Father who sent me.

Jesus Christ tells. according to John, that he will send the Counselor from the Father, the Spirit of Truth (the Holy Spirit of God). When considering the mutual position of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, it is clear that these three are not on the same level in power and authority. God the Father is the head of Christ. Both the Father and the Son are above the Holy Spirit, judging that they are sending the Holy Spirit to perform the duties assigned to it. Indeed, the Holy Spirit has many functions, as well as gifts (see Act 10:45) and fruits (see Gal 5:22) to give.

Joh 15:26 “When the Counselor has come, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will testify about me [Christ]. The Greek word Parakletos means Counselor, Helper, Advocate, Intercessor, and Comforter.

Joh 16:7 However, I am telling you the truth. It is for your advantage that I am going away, for if I do not go away the Counselor will not come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you.

Luke 11:13 “So if you who are evil know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the Father in heaven give the Holy Spirit to those who keep asking him!”


Counterfeits and additions to prove the Trinity

When there is no clear evidence in the Bible to prove the Trinity, dishonest means have been introduced. Here are some examples:

1 Joh 5:7-8: “For there are three that bear record (in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit: and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth), the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one.” – The added words I have put in parentheses.

NENT (Numeric English New Testament) translates the verse this way: 7 And it is the Spirit that witnesseth, because the Spirit is the truth. 8 Because the witnessing ones are three: the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and the three agree in one.

There are additions in the Latin Vulgate, but not in countless other old manuscripts. Additions are missing for all Greek MSS and even for most Latin languages.

Mat 28:19 ”Therefore go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,” – I am convinced that Jesus did not give such a command. In any case, the apostles completely disregarded the commandment and baptized thousands in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ alone.

Joh 1:1 ”In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.– However, the Greek text says: καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος or .. and God was the word. I don’t know when the error has appeared in the Bible, but it seems to be at least in the old KJV.

God in His word condemns additions to the Bible and the withdrawal of the text; Rev 22:18 “I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book, if anyone adds to them, may God add to him the plagues which are written in this book;” The verdict is even harder, I believe, for making outright fakes. It is often a question of interpretation; In the chapter Translation and interpretation issues, I have studied and pondered the problems, which I also am presenting in this chapter. I believe God wants  each of us to consider and study the Bible – and finally find the truth. Everyone must remember that not everyone has yet seen this truth of God and must not be judged, but we must be patient.


God Two-in-One

For and against

The doctrine is reminiscent of the doctrine of the Trinity God, except that there are only two persons in the Godhead.

The title means that our God would consist of two God persons. These would be God the Father and God the Son. A tiny proportion of Christianity supports such an interpretation; I know of only one church that supports this interpretation: The Restored Church of God.

It is God’s definition that God has always been; that is, he has neither beginning nor end. He is, of course, also almighty and omniscient. All Christians, I dare say, affirm that God the Father is such a God. What about the Son of God? Does the Bible’s testimony confirm that he meets the God’s criteria?

A very small proportion of Christianity supports such an interpretation.

God, the Father, raised his Son and gave him all power in heaven and on the earth. As a sign of power, Christ was given a throne on the Father’s right- hand side. The Holy Spirit is not said to have a throne or any other symbolic sign of high and equal power alongside the Father and the Son.

The RCG Church interprets the relationship between the Father and the Son in this way: God the Father was the Almighty God, and the other God Person was the Word, who is the God of the Old Testament (1 Cor 10: 1-4). The word was the one who created all things, and later appeared in the person of Jesus Christ.

The RCG Church claims that Old Testament contemporaries did not know God the Father, but only when Jesus revealed Him. Exo 6:3 “And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.”

– There are a few verses at the beginning of the Gospel of John that are also considered to be certain evidence of Christ’s eternal existence as the Word with God the Father in heaven:

Joh 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made.

Joh 1:14 The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth.

When reading the above verses, many forget everything else and state, “Here is the truth of the Bible, these verses prove everything.” Matthew Henry’s in-depth commentary says, ”2. His co-existence with the Father: The Word was with God, and the Word was God. Let none say that when we invite them to Christ we would draw them from God, for Christ is with God and is God; it is repeated in v. 2: the same, the very same that we believe in and preach, was in the beginning with God, that is, he was so from eternity. In the beginning the world was from God, as it was created by him; but the Word was with God, as ever with him. The Word was with God,” – I will return to this below and show that there is a word order error that, with certain preconceptions, changes the meaning of the expression of who is God and who is the Word.

Why, then, does John write in the same Gospel about God as one and only? God, who is the Father and God of Christ. Father, who is God alone. John, as a Jew, certainly understood what it meant that God is one. The appearance of a son to God was, of course, a new feature of faith. But the fact that the Son was an equal God was a new trait incomprehensible to all Jews.

Joh 5:44 How can you believe when you accept each other’s praise and do not look for the praise that comes from the only God?

Joh 17:3 This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Jesus Christ.

Joh 20:17 Jesus said to her, “Don’t touch me, for I haven’t yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.

1 Cor 8:4 Now concerning eating food offered to idols: We know that no idol is real in the world and that there is only one God. 5 For though there are things that are called “gods,” whether in the heavens or on earth; as there are many “gods” and many “lords;” 6 yet for us there is only one God, the Father, from whom everything came into being and for whom we live. And there is only one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom everything came into being and through whom we live.

Eph 4:4-6 There is one body and one [God’s Holy] Spirit. In the same way, you were called to the one hope of your calling 5 There is one Lord [Jesus Christ], one faith, one baptism; 6 one God and Father of all, who is above all, through all, and in all.

Jud 1:25 to the only God, our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, power, and authority before all time and for all eternity! Amen.

Until now, I have stuck to the interpretation of one God, the Father, to rule the kingdom. The faith of the RCG Church in its two Godheads has been mainly a curiosity. However, see what the Bible says in the last two chapters of Revelation, which I refer to at the end of the article.

What about the third person of the Triune God, the Holy Spirit? Why doesn’t he meet the requirements of the deity? Why isn’t the Holy Spirit considered to be by the RCG in the same position as the Father and the Son? I will now deal with the Holy Spirit.


God’s Holy Spirit

The Bible says Gen 1:1 ”In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” 2 And the earth was waste and empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters.” – How did the Spirit of God relate to creation? The Bible does not elaborate on this.

God has the (Holy) Spirit of God, and man has the Spirit of Man (Heb. Ruach). However, the Trinity doctrine has sought to separate the spirit of God from his own person. God gives man his spirit or sends his spirit. The spirit can also live in a person.

Here are some examples of the multifaceted activities of God’s spirit:

1 Sam 10:10 When they came there to the hill, behold, a band of prophets met him; and the Spirit of God came mightily on him, and he prophesied among them.

Job 33:4 The Spirit of God has made me, And the breath of the Almighty gives me life.

Psa 106:33 Because they were rebellious against his spirit, He spoke rashly with his lips.

Eze 11:24 The Spirit lifted me up, and brought me in the vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldea, to them of the captivity. So the vision that I had seen went up from me.

Mat 3:16 When Jesus had been baptized, he immediately came up out of the water. Suddenly the heavens opened up for him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming to rest on him.

Act 7:55 But he [Stephen], being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God,

Rom 8:9 But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn’t have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his.

Rom 8:16 The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God;

1 Cor 2:10 but God has revealed to us by his Spirit; for the Spirit searches all things, even the depths of God.

1 Cor 3:16 Don’t you know that you are a temple of God, and that God’s Spirit lives in you?

Eph 4:30 And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, with which you have been sealed for the day of redemption.

2 Tim 3:16 Every writing is God-breathed and is profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction which is in righteousness,

1 Joh 4:6 We are of God; he that knows God hears us; he who is not of God does not hear us. From this we know the spirit of truth and the spirit of error.

Rev 21:10 He carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God,

In these verses, we find descriptions of the Holy Spirit. The spirit comes to man, the spirit created, the spirit raised in vision, the spirit of Christ, the spirit testifies, the spirit examines all, the spirit is given as seal, the spirit of Truth, but also there is the spirit of deception, John was carried in spirit, etc.

Joh 10:30 I and the Father are one. – ‘One’ means: Father and I agree in one.

Joh 14:9 Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, ‘Show us the Father?’

Rom 1:7 To all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 9 For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you always in my prayers,

1 Cor 1:3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. – No greeting from the Holy Spirit.

2 Cor 1:2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort; – No greeting from the Holy Spirit.

Gal 1:3 “Grace to you and peace from God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ,” – No greeting from the Holy Spirit.

Eph 1:2-3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; – No greeting from the Holy Spirit. Etc. Etc.

Why did Paul send greetings in his letters from God the Father and Lord Jesus Christ but not from the Holy Spirit?

These verses mention Jesus and God the Father, but why not mention the Holy Spirit?

Many Bible verses do not mention the Holy Spirit, but indeed God the Father and Jesus Christ. Not a word about the third God person. One might ask, is the Holy Spirit, the third Person of the deity? Why is he not mentioned together with the Father and the Son?

Where is the throne of the Holy Spirit? Yes, the Father’s throne is described, and the Son’s throne is said to be on the right hand of God.

Why Doesn’t the Bible mention that Jesus was going to heaven to take his place as part of the Triune deity?

Christ knew He was the Son of God. Yet he said in Matthew 11:29: ”Place my yoke on you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.” – He could have chosen another way of self-revelation, but he “purged himself of all divinity” and chose a silent and humble example for humanity. He wanted to live the life of an ordinary man, even though he was constantly in contact with his Father.

Joh 20:17 Jesus said to her, “Don’t touch me, for I haven’t yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.” – Based on this verse, it is difficult to believe that Jesus is equal in deity to God the Father. Jesus says he will ascend to heaven to his Father and his God. Jesus’ relationship with God the Father is the Son’s relationship with the Father, but also the Son’s relationship with God. An example of this relationship could be found in the Old Testament, Joseph’s relation to the Pharaoh. With God’s help, Joseph became favored by the Pharaoh. The Pharaoh even named Joseph as his closest man to whom he gave all authority in Egypt. Nevertheless, Pharaoh remained the supreme leader.

What is noteworthy is what Jesus did NOT say. He didn’t say he would go to the Holy Spirit.

1 Cor 8:6 yet for us there is only one God, the Father, from whom everything came into being and for whom we live. And there is only one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom everything came into being and through whom we live.

I have regarded this Bible verse as one of the most important. As we break it down into parts, we see what it reveals: 1) We, or all of humanity, have only one God, the Father. 2) We are all created by God, the Father. 3) We have one Lord, Jesus Christ. 4) Everything in this world is through Christ.

Once again, one God, the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ. The Holy Spirit is not mentioned.

Psa 110:1 Psalm of David. Jehovah said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies as footstool of your feet.

Mat 22:43 “He said to them, “How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying, 44 ‘The Lord said to my Lord, Sit on my right hand, Until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet?’ 45 “If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son?”

Dan 7:13 I saw in the night-visions, and, behold, there came with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man, and he came even to the ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. 14 There was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.

Act 2:34 For David didn’t ascend into the heavens, but he says himself, ‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit by my right hand,

1 Cor 15:25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet.

Eph 1:20 which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly realm,

Heb 1:13 says: ”But to which [meaning none] of the angels did he ever say, “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”?

The Hebrews testifies that God, the Father, did not want to give power to any angel. He promised his Son Jesus to have all the power when he ascended to heaven.

I wrote about this a little while ago, but once again: God the Father has just raised his resurrected Son, the man Jesus Christ, to the throne in his right side. God promises Jesus to subject his enemies his “footstool.” It is noteworthy here that it is God who promises this to his son. I ask, could Jesus not have done all this himself if he was the almighty God, as the Trinity adherents believe.


What can we conclude so far?

John writes: 14:26 But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you. 28 You heard how I told you, ‘I go away, and I come to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I said ‘I am going to my Father;’ for the Father is greater than I.

The Holy Spirit is here called the Counselor. Jesus promises the disciples that the Father will send the Holy Spirit in the name of Jesus. The Holy Spirit recalls in the minds of the disciples’ everything that Jesus has taught. This explains how the disciples can remember Jesus’ teachings almost word for word.

Also important is Jesus’ recognition that “the Father is greater than me.” Could it also be said that the Holy Spirit, in turn, has a lower rank than God the Father or the Son, Jesus?

The Apostles, at least Paul, “the apostle of the nations,” had apparently done so. His letters to churches in the eastern Mediterranean can be read from the Bible. At the beginning of Paul’s letter, Paul greets the Church and sends a greeting from God the Father and Jesus Christ. But does he forget the Holy Spirit? It is unlikely that this is an oblivion because the same form of greeting is repeated many times.

My interpretation is that at least Paul does not regard the Holy Spirit as God. In his Gospel (when Thomas cried out to Jesus, “My Lord and My God!” V. 20:28), John wrote that his purpose was to prove that Jesus is the Son of God: 20:31 ”but these are written, that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.” Jesus Himself testified that the Father is greater than Him.


God’s choosing before the foundation of the world – God’s plan

God did not just create this great and wonderful world in which we live. Creating included a plan that was made before creation even began. Being all-knowing, God saw what was going to happen in his creation. He also chose from humanity those who would carry out his plan.

Micah 5:2 already told in the Old Testament about the birth of the Son of God in Bethlehem: ”But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Being small among the clans of Judah, Out of you one will come forth to me that is to be ruler in Israel; Whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting.” – God saw his Son as the King of the Millennial Kingdom in the world to come and as the Lord of the whole world. Therefore, it is right to say that the glory of Jesus was in the Father’s mind and his plans even before the foundation of the world. John says 17:5 ”Now, Father, glorify me with your own self with the glory which I had with you before the world existed.

God’s plan was not limited to seeing the future role of his Son Jesus. Paul writes:

Eph 1:4 ”even as he [God] chose us in him [Christ] before the foundation of the world, that we [Paul and the ‘saints’ in Ephesus] would be holy and without blemish before him in love;”

2 Tim 1:9 He [God] saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our own works but according to his own purpose and the grace that was given to us in Christ Jesus before time began.

The Bible verses written by Paul above show that before the foundation of the world, God had chosen Paul and the believing saints in Ephesus. It appears from the letter to Timothy that God has saved and called by holy calling according to His grace, that was given to us in Christ Jesus before time began.

‘Before the foundation of the world’ and ‘before eternal times’ are the same sayings used by Jesus Christ, which testify that Jesus Christ was with God before the foundation of the world. We all understand that Paul and the believers in Ephesus did not exist before the foundation of the world. They existed, just as the Son of God, Jesus Christ, in God’s thoughts and plans even before God had created the world.

The Bible cannot conflict with itself. The question is how we interpret the Bible and its difficult verses.

Jesus was not an independent actor on earth. God the Father had sent him to do the task. Jesus received instructions from God; God told him what to say and what to do. Jesus was not God but a man.


One God – the Father

1 Tim 2:5 ”For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,” – This verse highlights some essential points. First, it proves that God is one. That’s what most of us Christians know and believe in, each one of us. Second, there is a mediator between God and men, which is Jesus Christ. Third, there is only one mediator. The famous Catholic mediator, Virgin Mary, is not a real mediator, only her Son is. And fourth, a noteworthy thing: Jesus Christ is human. Christ being human is what Paul testifies in a letter to his colleague Timothy about 30 years after Christ’s death. Paul, therefore, when Christ has long been with the Father in heaven, testifies that Christ is a man in heaven.

What is the purpose of the mediator in heaven? After all, a mediator is someone who can mediate with someone who decides. The mediator can defend a person before the adjudicator. The mediator does not usually resolve the issue himself; he only raises the issue and defends the one for whom he mediates. To whom does Jesus present the matter? If we believe that deity is made up of three divine persons, then surely, Jesus will present the issue to both God the Father and the Holy Spirit. After all, they are both said to be equal God persons. But! God the Father has given His Son all power in heaven and on earth. It means that Christ himself can solve all human issues and does not have to ask for the permission of others. Even after such a raise, the promoter retains a higher position over the raised. God, the Father did not in any way elevate the Son to a higher status. Instead, exaltation and, with it, independent decision-making, raised Christ above the Holy Spirit.


God’s Word, – Wisdom, and – Power

Joh 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

2 The same was in the beginning with God.
3 All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made.

The Gospel of John 1:1 ”… and the Word was God.I wrote of this at the beginning of this article. It has a word order error! The Greek text says: κα θες ν λγος, i.e., and God [the Father] was the Word. The word order does not change the meaning of the verse unless the Word is given a meaning other than God. Trinity adherents, at this point, offer Jesus as the Word. The expression ‘the Word was with God’ also refers to the same. It is easy to interpret the whole verse as saying: In the beginning was Christ, Christ was with God, and Christ was God. This is  badly wrong!

God created the world in his Word. It is widely understood that the first verses of the Gospel of John signify Jesus Christ in creating the world with God the Father. Readers forget God’s revelation in Isaiah entirely, 44:24 ”… I am Jehovah, the maker of all things; who alone stretched out the heavens, who did spread forth the earth by myself;

The verses of the eighth chapter of Proverbs have also been considered as evidence that Jesus was with God in the creation of the world:

Pro 8:30 ”then I was by him his nursling, and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him;” Would a playful little boy of God have been capable of creating the world? Indeed, God the Father created the world with his word and wisdom. We are only beginning to understand this slowly.

However, wisdom is an abstract attribute, as is the power of God. Wisdom and power are not persons. Jesus said Mat 26:64 “Jesus said to him, “You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky.” – From the other verses’ we know that Jesus Christ sits on the right hand of God the Father. “Power” describes the Person of God. If Christ had said that he was lying to the right of Wisdom, we would have understood him to mean one attribute of God.

Similarly, the “Word of God” is personalized – and yet to the wrong Person. However, I have said, on another occasion, the opinion that it is correct to speak of Jesus as God’s word, as he declared the word of God, the will of God and the kingdom of God, sent by God in his work in public. So Jesus became the “Word of God” through his action.

We all know that “God is love.” In this way, love is personalized and connected to God. For example, 1 John 4:16 says: God is love, and he who remains in love remains in God, and God remains in him.

God told Moses: Deu 18:18 ”I will raise them up a prophet from among their brothers, like you [Moses]; and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I shall command him. 19 It shall happen, that whoever will not listen to my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.” – Jesus was recognized as a great prophet because of his miracles. Joh 6:14 The men therefore, having seen the sign which Jesus had done, said, This is truly the prophet which is coming into the world. Luk 7:16 Fear took hold of all, and they glorified God, saying, “A great prophet has arisen among us!” and, “God has visited his people!”

Joh 13:16 ”Truly, truly I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master, and a messenger is not greater than the one who sent him.” – In the Old Testament, Jesus is called God’s righteous servant. Isa 53:11 … by his knowledge shall my righteous servant instruct many in righteousness; and he shall bear their iniquities.

Isa 53:12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he poured out his soul to death, and was numbered with the transgressors: yet he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

Jesus’ coming to earth was already known from the time of Moses. He was to be a prophet and a righteous servant of God. God promised him a portion with the great ones (Isa 53:12). However, nowhere does it explicitly state that the Son of God, who himself would be part of the triune deity, is this prophet and righteous servant of God.

His most crucial mission, God sent his Son to earth to undo the effects of the fall of Adam and Eve.

Jesus himself says: Joh 13:16 Truly, truly I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master, and a messenger is not greater than the one who sent him. – Did Jesus refer specifically to these verses, that God sent him to do a mission to save humankind, and that God had prophesied to Isaiah about his righteous servant and prophet?

When God sent His Son, it shows that God is greater than the one he sent. Isaiah was able to prophesy of Jesus’ work. Therefore, Isaiah wrote about God’s mission, describing Jesus as “my righteous servant.” After completing His task, God exalted his Son, making him “Lord and Christ.” On those grounds, I interpreted that Jesus was not in heaven before his birth of the Virgin Mary, still less as part of the Triune God. When Jesus ascended to heaven, God the Father gave him divine authority over everything and everyone in heaven and on earth.

This leaves us with the task of ascertaining the interpretation; is God the Father one and only God? We know from the Bible that there in heaven is Jesus Christ, Son of God, a man. There is also the Holy Spirit of God in heaven, which has been described as God’s working force. Are these two latter god Persons? I have expressed the opinion that they belong to the Divinity, fellowship with God, but are not part of Almighty God; The Almighty God is Father alone.


One God Almighty, the Father

Deu 6:4 Hear, Israel: Jehovah our God is one Jehovah; – 6:3 Hear therefore, Israel, and observe to do it; that it may be well with you, and that you may increase mightily, as Yahweh, the God of your fathers, has promised to you, in a land flowing with milk and honey.

Deu 4:35 “To you it was shown, that you might know that Jehovah he is God; there is none else besides him.

Isa 45:5 “I am Jehovah, and there is none else; there is no God beside me: I girded you, and you have not known me;”

6 “that they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the going down, that there is none beside me. I am Jehovah, and there is none else;”

7 “forming the light and creating darkness, making peace and creating evil: I, Jehovah, do all these things.”

Isa 44:24 Thus says Jehovah, your Redeemer, and he who formed you from the womb: I am Jehovah, who makes all things; who stretches forth the heavens alone; who spreads abroad the earth (who is with me?);

Deu 6:4 Shama, yisrial Yahweh Elohim Yahweh echad. – The word Shama means hearing in a way that combines obedience.

1 Cor 8:6 ” yet for us there is only one God, the Father, from whom everything came into being and for whom we live. And there is only one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom everything came into being and through whom we live. – There can be no problem of interpretation here because ‘one God’ and ‘one Lord’ are separated into two sentences from one another with and-word.

The problem of interpretation relates to subordinate phrases; “the Father, from whom everything came into being and for whom we live” and another one; “Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom everything came into being and through whom we live ” (1 Cor 8:6) – Both say ‘where all is’ or ‘through which all is’. The difference is that when speaking of the Father, everything is said to be from the FATHER, but speaking of Christ, “through whom.” I interpret this to mean that the Father is the beginning of everything from whom the world and man began. Through Christ, the whole new world, through the New Covenant, is created new.

Rev 21:5 ”He who sits on the throne said, “Behold, I am making all things new.” He said, “Write, for these words of God are faithful and true.” – Both the Father and the Son sit on the throne. Both recite “I am the Alpha and the Omega.” They truly are one.

Isa 45:15 ”Most assuredly you are a God who hid yourself, God of Israel, the Savior.” 18 For thus says Jehovah who created the heavens, the God who formed the earth and made it, who established it and didn’t create it a waste, who formed it to be inhabited: I am Jehovah; and there is no one else.

Joh 1:18 No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him.


What is the future relationship between Father and Son?

The Hebrew Letter describes Jesus as the High Priest. Christ is eternally the High Priest of God (Heb 8:1, 6:20). However, the High Priest, even though he is Priest in the order of Melchizedek, is a servant of God and under his authority.

What about the future, when Christ’s millennial kingdom is over, the last judgment is executed, and New Jerusalem has descended to earth, and God himself dwells there. The thrones of God and Christ are also on earth. What is the relationship between Jesus Christ and the Father God?

The Bible says:

Rev 21:22-23 I saw no temple in it, because the Lord God Almighty and the lamb are its temple.  23 The city doesn’t need any sun or moon to give it light, because the glory of God gave it light, and the lamb was its lamp.
22:1 He showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb,

In Revelation, the Father and the Son say: I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end (21: 6 and 22:13). Verse 21:6 refers to the Father and 22:13 to the Son. It is recognized by what else they say in that context. The Father promises to make all things new (see Isa. 65:17), and the Son promises to come and repay everyone according to what he has done. (Mat. 16:27).

Does it make any sense to guess the order of ranks ​​between God and the Son?


Who is the “God of this world?”

Most of all, people are in favor of a god who is called in the Bible the “god of this world.” 2 Cor 4:4 says of them: “in whom the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving, that the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not dawn on them.”

Satan is here called the god of this world.

Most Christians have heard or read the story of Jesus in the wilderness; When Jesus fasted, Satan came to tempt him. “If you worship me, you will have the whole world under your control,” Satan offered, but Jesus drove him on his way. Many are only aware of the aforementioned short excerpt and have not heard of the shocking background to it. The priests do not accidentally say anything about it. So what had happened?

After Adam and Eve had fallen into Satan’s temptation, God, angry, drove them away from Paradise. They brought death with them; henceforth, all men have sinned, and have received the punishment: the death, that is to say, they have become mortal.

But what did God do to Satan? He gave the rulership of humanity to Satan. Jeremiah confirms God’s words: Jer 27:5 ”I [God] have made the earth, the men and the animals that are on the surface of the earth, by my great power and by my outstretched arm; and I give it to whom it seems right to me.

At some point, God considered it proper to give the world to Satan. I can’t say precisely when this happened. Two things seem certain. First, God said he would give the world whomever he wanted. Second, Jesus did not deny Satan’s claim that Satan had received the kingship of the world. What is unclear is the point of time when Satan took control of the world. It is possible that Satan gained the supremacy of the invisible world (spirit world) shortly after the fall of Adam and Eve. I concluded this because sin increased dramatically in the world after Adam and Eve.

Jeremiah 27: 6 tells how God gave the world 27:6 ”Now have I given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, my servant; and the animals of the field also have I given him to serve him.” – The world domination after Nebuchadnezzar changed hands several times: after Babylon, Medo-Persia, then Greece and Rome. These are all secular world powers. But, notice the following:

Satan’s world domination is the power of the spirit world, the power on human souls.

Luke confirms Satan: 4:6 The Devil said to Jesus, “I will give you all this authority and the glory of these kingdoms. For it has been given to me, and I give it to anyone I please.

We understand that God is the only one who, even in theory, could give the world to anyone. Jesus did not dispute Satan’s claim. He and the Apostles call Satan “the king of this world” in the Bible. We also know that when He gave Satan control of the world, God did not give it unconditionally or forever.

Thus Paul describes Satan as: “Be clear-minded and alert. Your opponent, the devil, is prowling around like a roaring lion, looking for someone to devour”(1 Peter 5:8). Satan has done well in his work. Most of the world’s 7 billion people are not new-born Christians. Nevertheless, Satan is not pleased; he knows he failed the first time when trying to kill Jesus as a baby, and later as an adult, he failed at trying to seduce him to worship himself. Satan also knows that his time is running out and that Christ has received all the power from God in heaven and on earth and will soon come to earth to exercise His power and destroy Satan’s troops.

Yet to this day, Satan is the “king of this world.” If people knew that, it would be much easier for them to understand what is going on in the world. People often blame God for adversity or accident. Wrong address! After all, they should blame Satan, but instead, people make claims to God.


Read more on this topic in the following articles.