ArticlesGLOSSARY OF OLD ENGLISH WORDS

GLOSSARY OF OLD ENGLISH WORDS

B y U n l e a v e n e d B r e a d M i n i s t r i e s
This glossary does not translate the original Greek. It is intended to assist the reader in understanding the Old English words Dr. Panin used by giving a modern definition. ado: tumult, uproar, noise

ambassage: a body of ambassadors entrusted with a message
anathema: object of loathing, incapable of being redeemed, devoted to everlasting destruction
antitype: the perfect image, a fulfillment or completion of an earlier truth
Areopagus: a court of justice in Athens that protected the worship of gods and met in the open air on a limestone hill with steps and seats cut into the rock, which can still be seen today
assiduous: constant devotion
austere: rough, severe
behooved: necessary
besetting: thwarting in every direction, surrounding us like a besieging army
betwixt: between
bier: an open coffin or a flat wooden frame that carried the body of the dead from the house to the grave
billow: a roaring sound
chamberings: illicit intercourse
clemency: fairness, sweet reasonableness concision: mutilation
confuted: convinced, proved downright
contrariwise: in the opposite direction or way
cubit: a measure of length from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow joint, approximately eighteen inches
disparagement: indignity, disgrace
dole: supply with bits, nourish
draught: a place of sitting apart, a privy, a place of receiving refuse
durst: venture, courageous, bold, dare
effulgence: radiance, light shining from a luminous body, brightness, shining forth
enjoin: communicate by letter, command, order
ere: before
fain: set the heart upon, long for
farthing: a Roman coin worth two mites and equivalent to what one might earn working ten or fifteen minutes
fathom: a measure of length of the outstretched arms, about six feet
firkin: a measure of liquid to indicate the capacity of the waterpots
froward: warped, perverse
fuller: a person whose chief work was cleansing and whitening garments for festive and religious occasions
furlong: a Greek measure of distance equivalent to 607 feet or one-eighth of a mile
gainsay: refute, deny, dispute
garner: a place where grain is stored,
a granary girt: to fasten on one’s belt, to encircle or bind with a girdle goads: long, pointed sticks used to prod animals
half-shekel: a Greek coin equivalent to two days’ wages, which was a temple tax levied on all the Jews
holden: bound, confined, restrained
ignoble: of low birth, of unknown descent, without reputation impenitent: unrepentant
lascivious: undisciplined and unrestrained behavior, a flagrant disregard of sexual restraints
lee: protective shelter against the wind, the side of a ship that is protected from the wind
Maranatha: a watchword used by early Christians to add solemn emphasis to the previous statement; meaning, Come, Lord!
mayhap: perhaps, may happen
mete: to apportion, to bestow, to give
mite: the only Jewish coin mentioned in the New Testament and is the smallest, valued at half a farthing
moored: drew to the shore, to cast anchor nigh: near in place or time noisome: annoysome, evil, bad, injurious offscouring: figuratively scum, the filth of the world ostracize: to set off by boundary, to separate from you, to exclude
pence: plural for penny
penny: the smallest copper coin equivalent to three farthings peradventure: perhaps, possibly
Potentate: one who has power and position and authority to rule over others, a term applied to God expressive of His power and authority and sovereignty Prætorium: common hall, governor’s hall, judgment hall
praetors: magistrates, generals, military governors, chief prefects of the Levitical temple wardens
prating: babbling, berating idly or mischievously
privily: privately, secretly proconsul: deputy of the country
proselyte: an arriver from a foreign region, a convert from one eligious belief to another
purloining: embezzling, carrying away or stealing the property of another
quaternions: guards of four Roman soldiers with two soldiers being confined with the prisoner and two soldiers keeping guard outside the cell door with each quaternion taking turns for each of the four successive watches of the night
reins: kidneys, used metaphorically to reveal the deepest emotions and affections of the inward man
restest: to settle on, literally remain on, to figuratively rely on rudiments: elements, basic principles, that which is to be learned first
sedition: an uproar, conduct or language inciting rebellion against authority
sepulcher: a grave
shekel: a Greek coin equivalent to four days’ wages                                           
shilling: a Roman coin equivalent to a day’s wages and was used for paying tribute or taxes to the Roman emperor whose image it carried
sixpence: a Greek coin equivalent to a day’s wages
sleight: sly, cunning, trickery
stanched: to cause to stand, to stop the flow of, to stop in its course
suborned: induced by secret agreement or cooperation to commit perjury, to obtain perjured testimony from a witness
sumptuous: goodly, radiant, magnificent
sycamine: a sycamore-fig tree
talent: as used in Matthew, a sum of money worth more than fifteen years’ wages of a laborer; as used in Revelation, the heaviest unit of weight for an able man to carry
tetrarch: the ruler over one-fourth of a province
thither: there
thyine wood: aromatic wood from a cone-bearing tree that was burnt in sacrifices on account of its fragrance, wood used to make valuable furniture by the Romans and Greeks
treatise: a detailed writing, a thorough composition on a particular subject
unlade: unload
upbraid: defame, rail at, chide, taunt vaunt: boast in one’s own worth or attainments vouchsafed: sworn, made a covenant, agreed to something especially after thoughtful consideration
wanton: lack of legal or moral restraints, disregard of sexual restraints, disregard of strict rules for correctness
whilom: former
whit: whole, complete
withal: at the same time, also, even, so then, too
wont: accustomed, usual manner, inclined
worsted: to be overcome, to be made worse
wrest: twist, turn from truth, pervert, misinterpret, misapply, misuse

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